Émile Cohl created the first animated film using what came to be known as traditional animation methods: the 1908 Fantasmagorie. The film largely consisted of a stick figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects, such as a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
A group of Soviet mathematicians and physicists headed by N. Konstantinov created a mathematically computable model of the physics of a moving cat. The algorithms were programmed on the BESM-4 computer. The computer then printed hundreds of frames to be later converted to film. An accompanying scientific paper describes the foundation of the employed physics simulation techniques that nowadays are commonly applied to animation films and computer games.
In 2018, Disney Animation released the short VR film Cycles directed by Gipson. Cycles was inspired by Gipson’s childhood spending time with his grandparents in their home before having to move them to an assisted living environment. Disney Animation’s production team completed Cycles in four months in conjunction with about 50 collaborators with mix of Quill VR painting techniques, motion capture as a means of pre-visualization for the film, incorporating 3D models of characters and drawn scenes for the VR space.